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/usr/share/postgresql-common/t/040_upgrade.t is in postgresql-common 181+deb9u1.

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# Test upgrading from the oldest version to the latest, using the default
# configuration file.

use strict; 

use File::Temp qw/tempdir/;
use POSIX qw/dup2/;
use Time::HiRes qw/usleep/;

use lib 't';
use TestLib;
use PgCommon;

use Test::More tests => ($#MAJORS == 0) ? 1 : 116 * 3;

if ($#MAJORS == 0) {
    pass 'only one major version installed, skipping upgrade tests';
    exit 0;
}

foreach my $upgrade_options ('-m dump', '-m upgrade', '-m upgrade --link') {
next if ($ENV{UPGRADE_METHOD} and $upgrade_options !~ /$ENV{UPGRADE_METHOD}$/); # hack to ease debugging individual methods
note ("upgrade method \"$upgrade_options\", $MAJORS[0] -> $MAJORS[-1]");

# create cluster
ok ((system "pg_createcluster $MAJORS[0] upgr >/dev/null") == 0,
    "pg_createcluster $MAJORS[0] upgr");
exec_as 'root', "sed -i '/^local.*postgres/ s/\$/\\nlocal all foo trust/' /etc/postgresql/$MAJORS[0]/upgr/pg_hba.conf";
is ((system "pg_ctlcluster $MAJORS[0] upgr start"), 0, 'Starting upgr cluster');

# Create nobody user, test database, and put a table into it
is ((exec_as 'postgres', 'createuser nobody -D -R -s && createdb -O nobody test && createdb -O nobody testnc && createdb -O nobody testro'), 
	0, 'Create nobody user and test databases');
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql test -c "CREATE TABLE phone (name varchar(255) PRIMARY KEY, tel int NOT NULL)"'), 
    0, 'create table');
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql test -c "INSERT INTO phone VALUES (\'Alice\', 2)"'), 0, 'insert Alice into phone table');
SKIP: {
    skip 'datallowconn = f not supported with pg_upgrade', 1 if $upgrade_options =~ /upgrade/;
    is ((exec_as 'postgres', 'psql template1 -c "UPDATE pg_database SET datallowconn = \'f\' WHERE datname = \'testnc\'"'),
        0, 'disallow connection to testnc');
}
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql testro -c "CREATE TABLE nums (num int NOT NULL); INSERT INTO nums VALUES (1)"'), 0, 'create table in testro');
SKIP: {
    skip 'read-only not supported with pg_upgrade', 2 if $upgrade_options =~ /upgrade/;
    is ((exec_as 'postgres', 'psql template1 -c "ALTER DATABASE testro SET default_transaction_read_only TO on"'), 
	0, 'set testro transaction default to readonly');
    is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql testro -c "CREATE TABLE test(num int)"'), 
	1, 'creating table in testro fails');
}

# create a schema and a table with a name that was un-reserved between 8.4 and 9.1
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql test -c "CREATE SCHEMA \"old\""'),
    0, 'create schema "old"');
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql test -c "CREATE TABLE \"old\".\"old\" (\"old\" text)"'),
    0, 'create table "old.old"');

# create a sequence
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql test -c "CREATE SEQUENCE odd10 INCREMENT BY 2 MINVALUE 1 MAXVALUE 10 CYCLE"'),
    0, 'create sequence');
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT nextval(\'odd10\')" test', 0, "1\n",
    'check next sequence value';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT nextval(\'odd10\')" test', 0, "3\n",
    'check next sequence value';

# create a large object
is_program_out 'postgres', 'psql -Atc "SELECT lo_from_bytea(1234, \'Hello world\')"', 0, "1234\n",
    'create large object';

# create stored procedures
if ($MAJORS[0] < '9.0') {
    is_program_out 'postgres', 'createlang plpgsql test', 0, '', 'createlang plpgsql test';
} else {
    pass '>= 9.0 enables PL/pgsql by default';
    pass '...';
}
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql test -c "CREATE FUNCTION inc2(integer) RETURNS integer LANGUAGE plpgsql AS \'BEGIN RETURN \$1 + 2; END;\';"',
    0, "CREATE FUNCTION\n", 'CREATE FUNCTION inc2';
SKIP: {
    skip 'hardcoded library paths not supported by pg_upgrade', 2 if $upgrade_options =~ /upgrade/;
    is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -c \"UPDATE pg_proc SET probin = '$PgCommon::binroot$MAJORS[0]/lib/plpgsql.so' where proname = 'plpgsql_call_handler';\" test",
	0, "UPDATE 1\n", 'hardcoding plpgsql lib path';
}
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql test -c "CREATE FUNCTION inc3(integer) RETURNS integer LANGUAGE plpgsql AS \'BEGIN RETURN \$1 + 3; END;\';"',
    0, "CREATE FUNCTION\n", 'create function inc3';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT inc2(3)" test', 0, "5\n", 
    'call function inc2';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT inc3(3)" test', 0, "6\n", 
    'call function inc3';

# create user and group
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -qc 'CREATE USER foo' template1", 0, '',
    'create user foo';
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -qc 'CREATE GROUP gfoo' template1", 0, '', 
    'create group gfoo';

# create per-database and per-table ACL	
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -qc 'GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE test TO foo'", 0, '',
    'GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE';
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -qc 'GRANT INSERT ON phone TO foo' test", 0, '',
    'GRANT INSERT';

# exercise ACL on old database to ensure they are working
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -U foo -qc "CREATE SCHEMA s_foo" test', 0, '',
    'CREATE SCHEMA on old cluster (ACL)';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -U foo -qc "INSERT INTO phone VALUES (\'Bob\', 1)" test', 
    0, '', 'insert Bob into phone table (ACL)';

# set database option
is_program_out 'postgres', 'psql -qc "ALTER DATABASE test SET DateStyle = \'ISO, YMD\'"',
    0, '', 'set database parameter';

# create a tablespace
my $tdir = tempdir (CLEANUP => 1);
my ($p_uid, $p_gid) = (getpwnam 'postgres')[2,3];
chown $p_uid, $p_gid, $tdir;
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -qc \"CREATE TABLESPACE myts LOCATION '$tdir'\"",
    0, '', "creating tablespace in $tdir";
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -qc 'CREATE TABLE tstab (a int) TABLESPACE myts'",
    0, '', "creating table in tablespace";

# Check clusters
like_program_out 'nobody', 'pg_lsclusters -h', 0,
    qr/^$MAJORS[0]\s+upgr\s+5432 online postgres/;

# Check SELECT in original cluster
my $select_old;
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql -tAc "SELECT * FROM phone ORDER BY name" test', $select_old), 0, 'SELECT in original cluster succeeds');
is ($$select_old, 'Alice|2
Bob|1
', 'check SELECT output in original cluster');

# create inaccessible cwd, to check for confusing error messages
rmdir '/tmp/pgtest';
mkdir '/tmp/pgtest/' or die "Could not create temporary test directory /tmp/pgtest: $!";
chmod 0100, '/tmp/pgtest/';
chdir '/tmp/pgtest';

# upgrade attempt fails cleanly if the server is busy
my $psql = fork;
if (!$psql) {
    my @pw = getpwnam 'nobody';
    change_ugid $pw[2], $pw[3];
    # suppress 'could not change directory to "/tmp/pgtest"'
    chdir '/tmp';
    # pg_upgradecluster below will timeout after 5s
    exec 'psql', '-c', 'select pg_sleep(15)', 'postgres' or die "could not exec psql process: $!";
}
usleep $delay;

like_program_out 0, "pg_upgradecluster -v $MAJORS[-1] $upgrade_options $MAJORS[0] upgr", 1, 
    qr/Error: Could not stop old cluster/,
    'pg_upgradecluster fails on busy cluster';
like_program_out 'nobody', 'pg_lsclusters -h', 0,
    qr/^$MAJORS[0]\s+upgr\s+5432 online postgres/;

kill 9, $psql;
waitpid $psql, 0;

# now that the connection went away, postgres shuts down; so restart it
# properly
system "pg_ctlcluster $MAJORS[0] upgr stop";
sleep 5;
like_program_out 'nobody', 'pg_lsclusters -h', 0,
    qr/^$MAJORS[0]\s+upgr\s+5432 down\s+postgres/;
is ((system "pg_ctlcluster $MAJORS[0] upgr start"), 0, 'Starting upgr cluster');

# Upgrade to latest version
my $outref;
is ((exec_as 0, "(pg_upgradecluster -v $MAJORS[-1] $upgrade_options $MAJORS[0] upgr | sed -e 's/^/STDOUT: /')", $outref, 0), 0, 'pg_upgradecluster succeeds');
like $$outref, qr/Starting target cluster/, 'pg_upgradecluster reported cluster startup';
like $$outref, qr/Success. Please check/, 'pg_upgradecluster reported successful operation';
my @err = grep (!/^STDOUT: /, split (/\n/, $$outref));
if (@err) {
    fail 'no error messages during upgrade';
    print (join ("\n", @err));
} else {
    pass "no error messages during upgrade";
}

# remove inaccessible test cwd
chdir '/';
rmdir '/tmp/pgtest/';

# Check clusters
like_program_out 'nobody', 'pg_lsclusters -h', 0,
    qr"$MAJORS[0] +upgr 5433 down   postgres /var/lib/postgresql/$MAJORS[0]/upgr +/var/log/postgresql/postgresql-$MAJORS[0]-upgr.log\n$MAJORS[-1] +upgr 5432 online postgres /var/lib/postgresql/$MAJORS[-1]/upgr +/var/log/postgresql/postgresql-$MAJORS[-1]-upgr.log", 'pg_lsclusters output';

# Check that SELECT output is identical
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -tAc "SELECT * FROM phone ORDER BY name" test', 0,
    $$select_old, 'SELECT output is the same in original and upgraded test';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -tAc "SELECT * FROM nums" testro', 0,
    "1\n", 'SELECT output is the same in original and upgraded testro';

# Check sequence value
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT nextval(\'odd10\')" test', 0, "5\n",
    'check next sequence value';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT nextval(\'odd10\')" test', 0, "7\n",
    'check next sequence value';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT nextval(\'odd10\')" test', 0, "9\n",
    'check next sequence value';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT nextval(\'odd10\')" test', 0, "1\n",
    'check next sequence value (wrap)';

# check large objects
is_program_out 'postgres', 'psql -Atc "SET bytea_output = \'escape\'; SELECT data FROM pg_largeobject WHERE loid = 1234"', 0, "Hello world\n",
    'check large object';

# check stored procedures
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT inc2(-3)" test', 0, "-1\n", 
    'call function inc2';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT inc3(1)" test', 0, "4\n", 
    'call function inc3 (formerly hardcoded path)';

SKIP: {
    skip 'upgrading databases with datallowcon = false not supported by pg_upgrade', 2 if $upgrade_options =~ /upgrade/;

    # Check connection permissions
    my $testnc_conn = $upgrade_options =~ /upgrade/ ? 't' : 'f';
    is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -tAc "SELECT datname, datallowconn FROM pg_database ORDER BY datname" template1', 0,
    "postgres|t
template0|f
template1|t
test|t
testnc|$testnc_conn
testro|t
", 'dataallowconn values';
}

# check ACLs
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -U foo -qc "CREATE SCHEMA s_bar" test', 0, '',
    'CREATE SCHEMA on new cluster (ACL)';
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -U foo -qc "INSERT INTO phone VALUES (\'Chris\', 5)" test', 
    0, '', 'insert Chris into phone table (ACL)';

# check default transaction r/o
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql test -c "CREATE TABLE test(num int)"'), 
    0, 'creating table in test succeeds');
SKIP: {
    skip 'read-only not supported by pg_upgrade', 2 if $upgrade_options =~ /upgrade/;
    is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql testro -c "CREATE TABLE test(num int)"'), 
	1, 'creating table in testro fails');
    is ((exec_as 'postgres', 'psql testro -c "CREATE TABLE test(num int)"'), 
	1, 'creating table in testro as superuser fails');
}
is ((exec_as 'nobody', 'psql testro -c "BEGIN READ WRITE; CREATE TABLE test(num int); COMMIT"'), 
    0, 'creating table in testro succeeds with RW transaction');

# check DB parameter
is_program_out 'postgres', 'psql -Atc "SHOW DateStyle" test', 0, 'ISO, YMD
', 'check database parameter';
SKIP: {
    skip "cluster name not supported in $MAJORS[0]", 1 if ($MAJORS[0] < 9.5);
    is (PgCommon::get_conf_value ($MAJORS[-1], 'upgr', 'postgresql.conf', 'cluster_name'), "$MAJORS[-1]/upgr", "cluster_name is updated");
}

# check tablespace
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -Atc 'SELECT spcname FROM pg_tablespace ORDER BY spcname'",
    0, "myts\npg_default\npg_global\n", "check tablespace of upgraded table";
is_program_out 'postgres', "psql -Atc \"SELECT spcname FROM pg_class c LEFT JOIN pg_tablespace t ON (c.reltablespace = t.oid) WHERE c.relname = 'tstab'\"",
    0, "myts\n", "check tablespace of upgraded table";

# stop servers, clean up
is ((system "pg_dropcluster $MAJORS[0] upgr --stop"), 0, 'Dropping original cluster');
is ((system "pg_ctlcluster $MAJORS[-1] upgr restart"), 0, 'Restarting upgraded cluster');
is_program_out 'nobody', 'psql -Atc "SELECT nextval(\'odd10\')" test', 0, "3\n",
    'upgraded cluster still works after removing old one';
is ((system "pg_dropcluster $MAJORS[-1] upgr --stop"), 0, 'Dropping upgraded cluster');
is ((system "rm -rf /var/log/postgresql/pg_upgradecluster-*"), 0, 'Cleaning pg_upgrade log files');

check_clean;
} # foreach method

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